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Footwear the Commons Womn. Sinyanga woodlands provided fodder for oxen at the up end of dry season times. Making the Commons Work:. Government Forest Authority ethnic many over one million mostly exotic trees, which were, in the main, flip unplanted by villages and people. Making the Commons Work:. Government Forest Authority adult many over one million mostly exotic trees, which were, in the main, left unplanted by amnesties and people. Local environmental knowledge was important.
It is Force fingering porn that the social and ecological memory is important, as the social memory and the genetic repository of the Miombo and Acacia woodlands was an important additional factor. Local environmental knowledge was important. The reinvigoration of traditional institutional arrangements Ngitili, Dagashida and Sungusungu was essential for demonstrating that adaptive capacities, though weakened, had not been lost Mlenge, Role of personalities and champions 20The HASHI staff worked closely with both district government staff and village government Ghazi et al.
Early on, though, more traditional top down approaches were used. In the early stages of restoration, HASHI provided hundreds of thousands Women looking for men in shinyanga mostly exotic seedlings, from one central tree nursery. Few of these were planted. The fact Women looking for men in shinyanga these now seemingly simple risks were taken by the HASHI project leader and his staff is testament to the importance they attributed for having such approaches. These relatively simple decisions demonstrate the importance champions and personalities can play, and helped to lay the foundation for overall success. At a time when participatory approaches were in their infancy, most decision-making was technical and expert-driven.
The importance of the right personalities at the right time was another critical success factor, albeit one that cannot be planned for. Important conservation gains can also Women looking for men in shinyanga achieved 22At a time when conservation is increasingly being Women looking for men in shinyanga to justify itself in the context of livelihood security, poverty reduction and the Millennium Development Goals and now the Sustainable Development Goalsthe HASHI experience offers refreshing and detailed insights into the reasons for considering biodiversity conservation as a key component of livelihood security and poverty reduction.
Restored natural trees and woodlands are important livelihood and economic assets. But in achieving significant livelihood outcomes, it is clear that large areas of biodiversity were restored in the context of underlying livelihood objectives Table 1. It demonstrates that natural resource assets are more important in terms of livelihood security and economic benefits than is generally assumed. There is a clear message here for government investment in Poverty Reduction Strategy implementation, viz that the environmental goods and services have to be more clearly taken into account and invested in at the local, district and national levels.
Further, and though not part of the original objectives, Ngitili also made a significant contribution to carbon sequestration Table 1 as well as being important for risk management and resilience enhancement. But gains can be fragile: Elite capture, where resources designated for the benefit of the larger population are usurped by more powerful individuals — be it economic, political, educational, ethnic, or otherwise Dutta, — is one such change. There are examples of where the powerful and rich try to usurp the process for their own benefit, and consolidate and further strengthen their own rights at the expense of the less powerful.
This can create landlessness and inequity, or differential benefit accrual and wealth capture, as men may benefit more than women, and those with large land holdings can benefit disproportionately to those with smaller holdings Shepherd, This implies the need for careful monitoring of unintended consequences, the importance of checks and balances, and the need for a self-critical approach. If government regulators, for example, mobilize information and resources to reinforce their authority, this may disempower other stakeholders such as resource users. To counter this at the local level, user groups need to create and have their own social and political capital.
These differences were recognized, and efforts were made to improve equity, where, for example Ngitili were used as one of the strategies through which some communities indirectly cushion the vulnerability of households classified as poor, e. Table 2 articulates these learning and feedback loops in the case of Shinyanga. If balance and equity are to be achieved, they need to be constantly re-negotiated so that the poorer and less powerful can also improve their livelihoods. Putting in place participatory monitoring to assure that some of those danger signs are picked up and addressed early and evaluation so that external perspectives can help point out potential problem areas together with the means to address them are important in the longer term and beyond the project cycle.
This demonstrates the importance of continued interaction, and ensuring that there are mechanisms to ensure equity both within the family genderand within the village to reduce elite capture. Learning and Feedback Loops in Shinyanga: Much of the learning originated in the recognition of the rich local knowledge and institutional base of the Sukuma people. Mlenge, personal communication, Government Forest Authority produced many over one million mostly exotic trees, which were, in the main, left unplanted by villages and people. Listen to and respect what trees local people want to plant and restore, build on importance of local institutions Ngitili, traditional Sukuma guards, or Sungsungu.
HASHI support for natural restoration and tree planting using species people wanted, respecting local institutions, and ensuring that such knowledge and institutional systems are respected by government. Success can sow the seeds for its demise. As the restoration increased in scale and scope, governance becomes an issue as land, hitherto with little value, assumed significant value — resulting in elite capture becoming an important issue to deal with and manage.
Local governance to respect farmers, groups and villages restoration is still an issue, and could be exacerbated by Women looking for men in shinyanga change impacts. Restoration now spread beyond the region to neighbouring regions. Need for improved tenure and secure rights for local people, as well as enhanced legal recourse for such people, combined with the importance of downwardly accountable representative government especially at district and village levels. Donors, governments and NGOs may Women looking for men in shinyanga engage elite elements of civil society, and so reinforce existing hierarchies of exclusions.
Sometimes customary authorities can compromise or enhance representation. Choices of local partners and the structure of local representation influence the formation and consolidation of accountable and responsive local government. Conclusions and key lessons 29Natural resources are important livelihood options to meet cash needs education, buildingfor fuel and building timber, and to provide valuable medicinals at the local levels. These are also key qualities for risk management and resilience enhancement in that: The responses need to include improved tenure and improved legal recourse for the poor, or we shall see increased injustice and impoverishment.
Combined with ensuring representation and downwardly accountable local government at all levels but especially district and villagelocal rights and authority to act is the way that people can have a chance of adapting successfully in increasingly uncertain times. Community action can lead to significantly improved ecosystems, even if the goal was not ecosystem restoration. The main principles underlying Ngitili are simple: But local ownership is key. Outsiders can play a supportive role policy, technical, facilitation in a context that embraces local knowledge and institutions in combination with local government institutions.
This enables trade-offs to be made at the local level, supports local level decision-making, and recognizes the role that champions often modest or even hidden play at different levels. Top of page Bibliography Adger, N. The political economy of cross-scale networks in resource co-management. Ecology and Society 10 2: Engendering exclusion in Senegal's democratic decentralization: Conservation and Society 6 1: Soil Conservation and Afforestation in Shinyanga Region: Trees as key to pastoralist risk management in semi-arid landscapes in Shinyanga, Tanzania, and Turkana, Kenya. Forest Restoration in Shinyanga, Tanzania. Linking Conservation and Poverty Reduction: Landscapes, People and Power, pp.
Making the Commons Work: Theory, Practice, and Policy. Institute of Contemporary Studies Press. East African Vegetation Communities. Services - Finding a good handyman, a dependable cleaner, or the right nanny for your child is not easy. Locanto Classifieds however certainly has the right service offer to cater to your needs. Search in classifieds categories such as child care, computer help, tutoring, or financial services to find exactly the service you are looking for in Shinyanga!
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